It is a Roman temple dedicated to all the gods of pagan Rome.. With such a massive structure as the Pantheon, it was important to make sure the foundation was capable of supporting all the weight of the concrete, bricks, and marble above it. 1. Also, while the wall looks like it is made of bricks, the bricks are just a thin outer layer, the majority of the material in the walls is concrete, which provides the structural support and strength of the walls. As a fairly simple structure, the massive columns of the Pantheon support the beams that make up the underside of the portico roof above. With massive single stone columns holding up the portico at the entrance, the immense open interior space created by the cylindrical rotunda, and of course, the characteristic concrete dome and open oculus to top it off, the Pantheon is quite the engineering wonder to behold. The first historically documented construction of the Pantheon was begun in 27 BCE by Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa (63 BCE – 12 BCE) a military commander and close collaborator of the Emperor Augustus. Photograph. This original design, where the foundation was only about 1.2 meters wider than the 31.7 meter tall walls it would support, which makes Moore suggest that the Romans may not have fully understood how much sinking could occur and how much of a foundation would be needed. The most likely areas for this are in the open space to the north, which later became the Pantheon precinct, and the area of the Saepta Iulia alongside the Pantheon to the east, which, according to the evidence of brickstamps, was rebuilt immediately after the Pantheon. Today, it is the oldest most intact ancient Roman building in the world. Since the 7th century, it has been a Roman Catholic church. The vertical component of this transferred load is directed through the pier and into the ground, while the lateral thrust from the arches is directed toward the adjacent piers and arches. By making the dome weigh less near the top, but by making the bottom of the dome heavier, it provided more support, at the bottom where it was needed, for the lateral thrust from the load of the rest of the dome above (Lancaster, 2006). The concrete used to make the foundation is pozzolan concrete, which consists of travertine aggregate in layers, held together by a mortar of lime and pozzolan (Moore, 1995). But beside the history and stories you can read about and listen to, the one thing that solidified my choice to research the Pantheon was the awe I experienced seeing it in person, walking around it, touching it, and going inside. From there, they had to be transported to Rome through the Nile, Mediterranean, and Tiber River by means of wooden sledges, barges, and larger sea-going vessels (Parker, 2009). The Pantheon is a building in the Latin Quarter in Paris.. Until modern times, the dome was the largest built, measuring about 142 feet (43 metres) in diameter and rising to a height of 71 feet (22 metres) above its base. Created by Beth Harris and Steven Zucker. It was presumably dedicated to Athena, and after its destruction much of its ruins were utilized in the building of the fortifications at the north end of the Acropolis. Jones argues that it is possible that the Pantheon was originally designed to have columns 50 Roman feet and capitals 10 Roman feet tall, but for some reason they were not able to use the columns as designed. The first was destroyed by fire in 80 CE and the second was struck by lightning in 110 CE and again burned down. Based on the cracks in the rotunda walls and the dates stamped on the bricks indicating when the grottoni was constructed, Mark Williams Jones describes this as the most probable reason for the existence of the grottoni: “…whatever may be the exact causation, the very existence of the grottoni and the manner in which they were constructed undoubtedly speaks of a crisis that was related to structural distress or constructional difficulty.” (Jones, 2009). Rather than finding vertical differential settlement, we have observed only traces of lateral openings across the cracks-corresponding to the effect of hoop tension.” (Moore, 1995), The cracking occurs in the lower half of the dome, starting at the point on the dome where the stress changes from compression to tension. The eighth wonder of the ancient world. But by analyzing the stamps on the bricks that make up the rotunda, most historians feel confident that the current Pantheon was built by Hadrian and not during the reign of Agrippa, as the inscription might seem to suggest (MacDonald 1976). The Roman legend tells that the original Pantheon was built on the very site and was dedicated to Romulus, their mythological founder, after he ascended to heaven from that site. 2 After the drum was constructed, the rectangular intermediate block was created to connect the circular part of the structure to the temple-like porch. Round temples were typically dedicated to Vesta. Copyright © 2020. The Pantheon at Rome is the most preserved and influential building of ancient Rome.. At the entrance to the Pantheon is a large portico; an area roofed by a triangular pediment structure supported by 16 monolithic (one single stone) columns above a slightly raised porch floor. The Pantheon in Rome is a true architectural wonder. Neither Soufflot nor … The original rectangular-shaped temple could not stand the test of time. What is particularly unique to the Pantheon however is the method by which these elements were incorporated into a structural system that has allowed the largest … “The Pantheon is the oldest building in the world that’s still in use today. Pantheon, Roman Empire, Rome, Italy, ca. Currently in Rome’s business district, the Pantheon is located in Campo Marzo (Campus Martius), surrounded by restaurants and a public square, with Piazza Navona a few blocks to the West. It was built by the emperor Hadrian almost 2,000 years ago. The Pantheon. Building the Pantheon was a dream that turned nightmarish, though in the end it sends all who enter into reveries. Still, after nearly 2000 years, it holds that record. Buy tyres online and save up to 50% off RRP. Rotunda. According to Cassius Dio, this was not the original intention, as he describes below, Agrippa initially wanted to dedicate his temple to Augustus: “Agrippa, for his part, wished to place a statue of Augustus there also and to bestow upon him the honour of having the structure named after him; but when the emperor wouldn’t accept either honour, he placed in the temple itself a statue of the former Caesar and in the ante-room statues of Augustus and himself. Created by Beth Harris and Steven Zucker. The Pantheon was rebuilt by the Emperor Hadrian during the period 118 to 128 A.D. (a time given by Ward-Perkins). This is just one example of a piece of the Pantheon’s long history that includes unique ambitiousness, ingenious construction techniques, and examples of remarkable Roman engineering. The bronze rosettes and moldings of the ceiling and other bronze embellishments have disappeared over time, and a frieze of stucco decoration was applied to the interior directly beneath the dome in the late Renaissance. https://www.thoughtco.com/influencial-architecture-of-the-pantheon-177715 Powered by WordPress. 1 The diameter of the Temple of Diana, part of a thermal complex, is fractionally greater than 29.5 meters, or 100 Roman feet. This circle and square pattern of design is prevalent throughout the Pantheon, as also seen by the design of the tiles in the floor. DR. BETH HARRIS: The Pantheon originally contained sculptures of the gods, of the deified emperors, we think. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. The relieving arches, framing the niches and cavities, are in place to divert the load from the area near the structurally weak cavities into the piers. It is still in use as a Roman Catholic church, the Santa Maria Rotonda. Though their functions i simple, the sheer size of the columns and the fact that they are each made out of single stones make the story and creation of the columns quite complex . I could never express my gratitude enough for, or even understand the depth of, all the hard work that went into starting and running this program, but I truly appreciate the dedication and commitment to providing the opportunity for us students to travel and learn about Roman engineering. 10 Facts about the Pantheon. The cracks are in the meridional direction, rather than laterally or horizontally and do not reach up to the oculus. Australia’s No.1 place to buy, sell and research new and used farm machinery and livestock. The word “Pantheon” in fact comes from the Greek and literally means (temple) “of all Gods” (“pan” = “all” and “theon” = “divine”).However, Agrippa’s original construction was damaged by two fires, in 80 A.D. and 120 A.D. and was completely rebuilt by Emperor Hadrian between 118 and 125 A.D., preserved substa… Along with other strong structural reasons as described later, the Pantheon’s status as a Christian church provided it with a more consistent and careful maintenance practice than other non-sacred or pagan sites that were left to be pilfered and unmaintained after the fall of Rome and its ensuing long dark ages (MacDonald 1976). Due to the shape of the arch and the way it redirects load, the arches were able to shift slightly and better absorb some of the effects of mortar settlement and also allowed them to build faster because they didn’t have to wait for the mortar to cure completely before moving onto the next layer (Lancaster, 2006). The Pantheon – the most imitated building in the world but never duplicated. Google Classroom Facebook Twitter. Motoring. To construct the walls, the builders used wood scaffolding that was very light and tied together with rope. The Pantheon, Rome, c. 125 Speakers: Dr. Beth Harris, Dr. Steven Zucker. The Pantheon’s columns were of typical Roman column style, but were larger than many columns used at this period of time, so it was quite the feat to create, transport, and erect them. Hadrian, The imperial palace, Tivoli. Photograph. From page 88 of David Moore’s “The Roman Pantheon” discussing the influence of heat in the brick making process, Different sizes and cuts of standard Roman bricks (Acocella, 2014), In this photo you can see the outer brick layer (bottom), the exposed inner concrete (middle to top), and the holes used to support scaffolding and framework during construction. It burned in the great fire of 80 AD, was rebuilt by Emperor Domitian, but was struck by lightning and burned again in 110 AD. While it is great to look at and admire the dome, when you start to analyze and breakdown all the engineering involved with its construction, it only gets more impressive. Equestrian Sculpture of Marcus Aurelius. In Vitruvius’ tenth book on machines, the author describes many cranes, and elaborates that these machines are used for hoisting heavy loads during “the completion of temples and public works,” and also for loading and unloading ships. With the foundation of a structure being arguably the most vital element for longevity and stability, considering that the planned foundation of the Pantheon seemed to be somewhat meager and built on top of wet clay, it is amazing that the structure has stood to be as stable as long it has. They built up like this in 20 centimeter thick layers, adding the relieving arches and leaving empty cavities as they moved up. The bricks are heated at high temperature for about 2 hours to complete the chemical transformation. It is a circular building of concrete faced with brick, with a great concrete dome rising from the walls and with a front porch of Corinthian columns supporting a gabled roof with triangular pediment. The Romans revered their gods so much; they were confident that, Romulus, the Roman founder rose up to heaven from that building. Chapter. Concrete Construction; 5. The spectacular design, proportions, elegance and harmony are a striking reminder of the architecture of the great Roman Empire. This gives the Pantheon the impression of balance and harmony. The outside of the walls were covered with white marble which hid all the brick and provided a cleaner finished look after construction. View all citations for this chapter on Scopus × Print publication year: 2015; Online publication date: June 2015; Six - The Pantheon Builders: Estimating Manpower for Construction. Along with statues of Augustus and Caesar, members of gens Iulia, Agrippa’s Pantheon also contained statues of many gods, including Mars and Venus. They then compacted the concrete over layers of rock pieces and allowed to dry (Parker, 2009). The dome of the Pantheon is made of concrete, but it is not uniform throughout. Cipriani, Luca Fantini, Filippo and Bertacchi, Silvia 2020. The Pantheon, though, has stood for centuries. Maritime Theatre at Hadrian's Villa, Tivoli. At the bottom they used heavier rocks like basalt and at the top they used lighter rocks such as pumice (Parker, 2009). You walk around a street corner just like any other Roman street corner and then, Bam!, the Pantheon is right there. The Tholos was an underground domed tomb used since Neolithic times. unreinforced solid concrete dome in the world. Most historians claim that Emperor Augustus right hand, Agrippa, built the first Pantheon in 27 BC. The dome started from the top of the rotunda as a series of 7 concrete rings that go halfway up the dome decreasing in width and diameter until it transitions to a smooth circular line up to the 5.9 meter diameter oculus. Rectangular coffers, or indentations, were cut in the ceiling, probably under Severus, and decorated with bronze rosettes and molding. The Treasury of Atreuswas constructed around 1250 BC. (Moore 1995). The pediment is made of cut stone and supported by wood beams in the interior. The bricks in the arches were bipedales, a Roman type of square brick, that were about 60 centimeters in length and width, and about 2 centimeters thick. The Pantheon, Rome, c. 125 Speakers: Dr. Beth Harris, Dr. Steven Zucker. But when Michelangelo first saw the Pantheon in the early 1500s, he proclaimed it of “angelic and not human design.” Surprisingly, at that point, this classic Roman temple, converted into a Christian church, was already more than 1350 years old. There is an interesting theory about the structure attached to the rear of the rotunda that suggests that the Pantheon dealt with some major settlement at some point during construction and they needed to improvise a way to remedy it. (Moore, 1995). p.68-87. I could never thank everyone, nor could I thank them enough, but I wholeheartedly recommend this program to any student fortunate enough to have the opportunity to participate in this program. In 1806 the building was turned into a church again, but since 1885 the Pantheon serves as a civic building. Greek influence in Roman architecture is significant. The bricks would be formed into standard shapes as shown below; bessales, sesquipedales, and biedales. The Pantheon; The Conception and Construction of Drum and Dome; The Pantheon. The walls contain internal and external relieving arches that, along with 8 very large niches in the interior, divide the wall into a series of concrete piers. The first structural foundation of the Pantheon was laid between 27 and 25 BC. (Moore, 1995). Depending on the size of the loads, these cranes employed single or double boom arms. The Pantheon was a part of the building complex sponsored by Agrippa, built on his own property, that also included a temple to the god of the sea, Neptune, and a public bath. The Roman Pantheon is the largest (43.4m dia.) In the year 117, Hadrian began the tremendous undertaking that was the construction of the Pantheon. Originally the dome was covered with a layer of bronze plates, but those were since removed and replaced with lead plates. The oldest building in Rome, today the Pantheon stands as a monument to ancient Roman ingenuity and a puzzle of history. Broken brick pieces were also used as part of the aggregate in the concrete walls of the Pantheon, an example of the common Roman practice of the reuse and re-purposing of materials. Mark William Jone’s theory is that because of the clay foundation, portions of the Pantheon’s walls began to settle at a significantly different rates, and this caused the walls to begin separating during construction. The identity of the architect behind the Pantheon is unknown, but … Created by Steve Muench. The Pantheon – Rome – 126. This was done to lighten the weight of the dome while using the necessary materials to provide enough support where needed; at the bottom, and save weight where less load is supported; near the top (Parker, 2009). At 43.2m, the height of the building is exactly the same as the width, meaning that a perfect sphere would fit inside. As the brick stamps on the side of the building reveal it was built and dedicated between A.D 118 and 125. Two factors, however, are known to have contributed to its success: the excellent quality of the mortar used in the concrete and the careful selection and grading of the aggregate material, which ranges from heavy basalt in the foundations of the building and the lower part of the walls, through brick and tufa (a stone formed from volcanic dust), to the lightest of pumice toward the centre of the vault. A stone very similar to granite, granodiorate is formed in the same way, by slow cooling underground magma, but granodiorate has more calcium and sodium and is darker than granite. While it is difficult to determine exactly who built the Pantheon, how, and when, there seems to be a majority consensus on the history as follows. The second ingredient of concrete, pozzolan, is a volcanic ash that is composed of an amorphous silica compound. The Pantheon The Pantheon boasted the worlds largest dome when it was built. Interior of the Pantheon, Rome, oil on canvas by Giovanni Paolo Pannini, 1732. The largest of loads would require reduction gear, including the use of capstans to tension the boom arms. The columns of the Pantheon’s portico serve the same functions as most all other columns; they are load bearing structures used to transfer the weight of the structure above, through compression, to the ground. Since the 7th century, it has been a Roman Catholic church. The portico and dome combination has influenced Western architectural design for centuries. Chapter; Aa; Aa; Access; Cited by 1; Cited by. I would like to thank Steve Muench for leading this program and Heta Kosonen for helping, to make Engineering Rome such enriching and incredible experience. The Pantheon and the Phasing of its Construction. They used the heaviest aggregate, mostly basalt, at the bottom and lighter materials, such as pumice, at the top. Due to the fact that the concrete is in the shape of a dome, it is subject to tension by means of hoop stress and, as concrete performs more poorly in tension than in compression, the hoop stress has resulted in cracks in the dome and walls of the Pantheon. (Martines, 2009), Figure of stepping rings and lead plates on exterior. The concrete in the rotunda wall was the same type as is described in the Foundation Materials section above. The Pantheon’s dome measures an impressive 142 feet in diameter and height and diameter. It is this version which still stands today in centr… A traditional rectangular temple, first built by AgrippaThe conventional understanding of the Pantheon’s genesis, which held from 1892 until very recently, goes something like this. As a way to quickly fix this, they constructed the grottoni to hold up and support the walls against leaning and collapse due to further settlement. The Pantheon uses the same Corinthian columns. by statesman Marcus Agrippa, son-in-law of the first Roman emperor, Augustus.Traditionally thought to have been designed as a temple for Roman gods, the structure’s name is derived from the Greek words pan, meaning “all,” and theos, meaning “gods.”The original Pantheon was destroyed in a fire around 80 A.D. This clay cycled through wet and dry four times a year due to the Tiber River flooding or changes in water level. The dome was created from poured concrete using a system of interior scaffolding and framework. This is the currently selected item. (Moore 1995), Possible methods of scaffolding, see protruding coffer forms: Independent scaffolding (altereagle.com), Possible methods of scaffolding: Dependent scaffolding (Moore, 1995), The stresses in a spherical dome: Tension in the bottom causes meridional cracks from the base (Isler and Balz, 1980), Mapping of the cracks in the dome of the Pantheon. In the year 117, Hadrian began the tremendous undertaking that was the construction of the Pantheon. Form and construction. To construct the rotunda, a repetitive cycle was used: the brick walls would be built up slightly, layering bricks and mortar, then aggregate would be placed in a layer, lime and pozzolan mortar would be placed on top, the concrete would be compacted, then let to dry. The portico serves as a grand entrance-way to the Pantheon and includes some quite interesting features, specifically the columns. The Pantheon remained a temple to all the Roman gods until the 5th century, when In 609, Emperor Phocas gave it to Pope Boniface IV, who consecrated it, dedicated it to St. Mary and all the Christian martyrs, and renamed it Santa Maria ad Martyres (Parker, 2009). Nor is it the first version of the Pantheon at that location. A perfect half circle of coffered concrete in the interior leading up to the oculus open to the sky, the dome probably the most defining feature of the Pantheon. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef. The concrete thickness also lessens as it goes up, from 21 feet thick at the base to only 4 … The architect was probably Lucius Cocceius Auctus and the building was perhaps completed in 25 BCE. The relieving arches in the brick walls of the rotunda, Left: Stairway to Heaven being played outside the Pantheon one day while passing by (video from author). 107, Issue. He mentions that some of these machines are set upright in a stationary position, while some have revolving booms. retrieved from UW Catalyst Engineering Rome Resources page, Parker, F. (2009, May). Roman Design and Construction: 3. From such a diverse collection of celebrated gods contained inside, Agrippa’s temple was believed to be given its name “Pantheon” from Greek, meaning roughly “all the gods” (Platner, n.d.). The Pantheon has also been used as a burial place for many significant Italians including; the artist Raphael in 1520 at his own request, Victor Emmanuel II in 1878, the first King of Italy, and King Umberto I who was assassinated in 1900 (MacDonald 1976). It is tolerable if the entire structure settles at a uniform rate and to a uniform depth, but if different parts of the foundation settle at different rates and depths, then the foundation could undergo stresses that it was not designed for. In the year 117, Hadrian began the tremendous undertaking that was the construction of the Pantheon. This article was most recently revised and updated by, https://www.britannica.com/topic/Pantheon-building-Rome-Italy, Sacred Destinations - Pantheon, Rome, Italy, Pantheon - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up). Vitruvius also describes an instrument of laminated wood and supporting cords that resembles a fulcrum lever mechanism. See the pictures below for visual explanation of these geometries. accessed 13 September 2015 from, Hudelson, M. no date. In the busy streets of Rome stands one of the greatest architectural wonders from the Ancient Roman Empire, the Pantheon.The Pantheon is a monumental pagan temple of gods that became a basilica with a tremendously complex history. Pantheon, building in Rome that was begun in 27 BC by the statesman Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa, probably as a building of the ordinary Classical temple style. The Pantheon is still used as a Roman Catholic church, and visitors can view much of the original construction while learning more about it on a guided tour. Hadrian's Villa, Tivoli: A virtual tour. The 39-foot-high gray granite portico columns, each weighing 60 tons, came from a … Scientist believes she’s found the recipe for ancient Roman concrete used 2,000 years ago The most striking feature of the Pantheon is the massive dome, … Engineering Rome is a UW Exploration Seminar that covers Roman and Italian engineering over a range of 3,000 years from Ancient Rome to the present day. The Pantheon, Rome, c. 125. Today, nearly 2,000 years after its construction, the Pantheon still shows no signs of settling or cracking. The most difficult and unwieldy of loads would be handled by treadmill cranes, as illuminated in a scene from the Haterii Relief (shown below).These cranes have been depicted with up to eight workers inside the bowels of the treadmill, which provide the necessary power to manipulate the loads.” (Sahotsky, n.d.), The columns of the Pantheon’s portico are arranged in three rows; 8 in the front row and then two rows of 4 columns behind them. It is a Roman temple dedicated to all the gods of pagan Rome. It was completely rebuilt by the emperor Hadrian sometime between ad 118 and 128, and some alterations were made in the early 3rd century by the emperors Septimius Severus and Caracalla. Crossref Citations. The Pantheon. The compaction was important to making the concrete strong and durable because a chemical reaction must take place and the compaction of the concrete pushes the molecules closer together by removing any air gaps and extra water. 1 The diameter of the Temple of Diana, part of a thermal complex, is fractionally greater than 29.5 meters, or 100 Roman feet. The grottoni appears not to have served any ceremonial or utilitarian purpose, and along with the fact that it looks as though the grottoni was built quite quickly, there is some mystery as to why it is there. Although it is unclear who the architect of the Pantheon was, it is believed most likely not to have been Hadrian himself, but rather someone else with more professional experience. The Pantheon is one of the most beautiful and fascinating Roman buildings, and today still remains a masterpiece of engineering: Its round shape and balanced and harmonious architecture still affect thousands of visitors every day, nearly 2,000 years after its construction.. This was considered a most un-emperorlike thing to do; write someone else’s name on your building, but it was possibly a way to give credit to and remember Agrippa’s original concept for the Pantheon. Bricks and concrete constitute the greatest percentage of the building blocks of the Pantheon. It was secularized during the French Revolution and dedicated to … This conversion into a Christian church is thought to be one of the main reasons that the Pantheon has stood the test of time and remained so well preserved. The third Pantheon was probably begun in the reign of Trajan (98-117 CE) but not finally finished until around 125 CE when Hadrian was emperor, who often convened the Roman Senate there. Its date of construction is uncertain, because Hadrian chose not to inscribe the new temple but rather to retain the inscription of Agrippa's older temple, which had burned … Excavations in the nineteenth century and from 1995 to 1997 showed that there is a lower … The reason they varied the weight of the concrete of the dome at different levels was to make the dome lighter with cheaper material while still providing enough structural support. Different mixes of concrete were used at different levels as you move up the dome, heavier materials lower at the base and lighter weight materials up near the top. Improvements in the tecnique used for cutting stones led to the construction of walls with stones having the same size (Isodomum - Vitruvius - De Architectura). There is no external evidence of brick arch support inside the dome, except in the lowest part, and the exact method of construction has never been determined. Roman concrete was made out of three components: pasty hydrated lime, pozzolan and pieces of aggregate. 3 The exact age of the pantheon remains unknown. The building is a combination of a circle and a rectangle. So, it appears that the cracks in the dome are not a major concern as the stresses are within a safe design limit, but the cracks are still being monitored and there is discussion of adding a protective steel band around the base to prevent dislocation during an event such as an earthquake. Michelangelo (1475-1564) looked at everything with an artist’s critical eye, and he was not easily impressed. Beneath the porch are huge bronze double doors, 24 feet (7 metres) high, the earliest known large examples of this type. While the dome is obviously still standing, the cracks have contributed to the top of the dome having slumped about 60 centimeters. By the time the construction was finished, the French Revolution had started, and the National Constituent Assembly voted in 1791 to transform the Church of Saint Genevieve into a mausoleum for the remains of distinguished French citizens, modelled on the Pantheon in Rome which had been used in this way since the 16th century. Hopefully Engineering Rome will continue to thrive and then maybe, as more hearts are touched and minds expanded, there be enough students to give everyone the praise and thanks closer to what everyone truly deserves, more than I could ever express by myself, but never more than I actually feel. Architecture of the Pantheon. He was in fact, rebuilding a church on the same site that the first two Pantheons where previously built upon. To construct the foundation they first dug circular trenches and lined them with wooden boards to create the mold for the concrete. Each column is 11.8 m tall, 1.5 m in diameter, and weigh about 60 tons. Panthéon, building in Paris that was begun about 1757 by the architect Jacques-Germain Soufflot as the Church of Sainte-Geneviève to replace a much older church of that name on the same site. Note the columns supporting the stone beams and arches, and the wood trusses holding up the roof. This inscription has caused confusion when trying to date the construction and builder of the Pantheon. Get exclusive access to content from our 1768 First Edition with your subscription. Hadrian built the current Pantheon in 117 with the new cylinder and dome design, but kept the same intention as a temple for all gods. rom the Contents: Preface; Part I. It was originally built as a church dedicated to St. Genevieve, but now functions primarily as a burial place for famous French heroes. Through the years since then and up to now, the Pantheon has be altered, scavenged from, and used for various things. Capstans at the ground level would feed the cords through pulleys to effectively tension the wood beams, and pull the column from a lying horizontal position to its vertical standing position. At the approximate position where the Parthenon was built later, the Athenians began the construction of a building that was burned by the Persians while it was still under construction in 480 BCE. (Macdonald, 1976). Attached at the rear of the Pantheon is a small structure, called the grottoni, which is a brick building consisting of 6 interior walls, 2 floors, overhead vaults, and a bridge-like connection to the rotunda about 2/3 of the way up. The Pantheon was built on the exact site of two earlier Pantheon buildings, one commissioned by Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa (27-25 BCE) and the second by Domitian. It is an early example of Neoclassicism, with a facade modelled after the Pantheon in Rome surmounted by a dome that owes some of its character to Bramante’s “Tempietto”. When mixed with the liquid lime slurry, the large holes in the molecular structure of the pozzolan are filled and expand to lock other pieces together. The stepped rings provided most of the buttressing support of the lateral thrust from the dome. If this were to occur, the walls of the Pantheon would be put under a large amount of bending stress, and this could cause the concrete to crack and fail in shear. Pantheon construction is a leading builder in diverse market segments. The rotunda walls hold up the massive dome above and provides the necessary interior space for the public space inside. However, after many different lectures and tours, the Pantheon kept popping up in the discussions. Omissions? How the dome has been able to bear its own weight has been a matter of great debate — if such a structure were built today with unreinforced concrete, it would quickly collapse. There is no stairway available to climb up to that gateway, but as you listen to the music in the square outside, it feels nice to imagine there is one (see video below). Australia's most comprehensive coverage of what's new in the automotive space. They therefore had to use the the 40 Roman foot columns and 8 Roman foot capitals that are currently in place. Originally the Pantheon was built by Agrippa between 27 and 25 BC and he dedicated it to the worship of all the Olympians. Of course, they did add more foundation after the first ring cracked, but it is uncertain what has prevented the destruction of the structure, whether it be the lack of stress concentrations points on the foundation, very strong concrete, and/or something else (Moore 1995). The relieving arches at the bottom of the rotunda are one layer of bipedales thick, but are two or three layers thick in the upper sections. Major Advances in Knowledge About the Pantheon; Part II. The different types of bricks would also be broken up into triangles, as shown by the lines across the bricks in the picture below, and this was done to provide various different sized bricks to fit certain jobs. To lay the concrete for the dome, the builders worked up in levels, constructing wooden work platforms and forms to shape the concrete. View all Google Scholar citations for this chapter. This is a construction technique that is still used today. Hadrian even kept Agrippa’s original inscription over the portico of his new Pantheon: M AGRIPPA L F COS TERTIVM FECIT (roughly translating to: Marcus Agrippa the son of Lucius, three times consul, built this). The first version, built by Emperor Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa, was said to have been a T-shaped building, constructed around 27 BC and burned down in the fire of the year 80. The Roman Pantheon is the most preserved and influential building of ancient Rome. This was done, not out of any rivalry or ambition on Agrippa’s part to make himself equal to Augustus, but from his hearty loyalty to him and his constant zeal for the public good; hence Augustus, so far from censuring him for it, honoured them the more.” (Thayer, n.d.). The present building was completed by the emperor Hadrian, on the site of an earlier temple commissioned during the reign of Augustus (27 BC – 14 AD) which had burnt down. (Photo by author), Reconstruction of Pantheon as it may have looked, showing portico and statues (Hudelson, n.d.), The Pantheon today, see the second cornice outlining the planned pediment above the existing pediment (romeonsegway.com), The theoretical sphere, cube, and cylinder of the Pantheon (toolonginthisplace.wordpress.com), Leonardo da Vinci’s Vitruvian Man (leonardodavinci.stanford.edu), Pantheon floor and hte circle and square geometry (Photo by author), Geometry and dimensions (meters) of rotunda and dome. Built around 125 A.D. by the Roman emperor Publius Aelius Hadrianus, it was actually the third iteration of the structure. Practice: Pantheon . Yet because of its significance and breathtaking wonder, the Pantheon has been the subject of much study and analysis. When in closer proximity and without extra water in the way, the atoms of pozzolan and of lime can better bond by sharing electrons and this created a durable concrete (Moore, 1995). retrieved from UW Catalyst Engineering Rome Resources page, Analysis of the Major Sections of the Pantheon, http://www.romanconcrete.com/docs/chapt01/chapt01.htm, http://www.monolithic.org/domes-more/the-pantheon-rome-126-ad, http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Gazetteer/Places/Europe/Italy/Lazio/Roma/Rome/_Texts/PLATOP*/Pantheon.html, http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Roman/Texts/Cassius_Dio/53*.html, http://www.sas.upenn.edu/ancient/masons/Sahotsky-Masons_Materials.pdf, http://www.nps.gov/goga/learn/education/granite-and-granodiorite-faq.htm, http://romeonsegway.com/10-facts-about-the-pantheon/, http://www2.palomar.edu/users/mhudelson/WorksofArt/07Roman/3020.html, https://toolonginthisplace.wordpress.com/2012/05/, http://leonardodavinci.stanford.edu/submissions/clabaugh/history/leonardo.html, http://www.altereagle.com/Master-Carpenter-History.html, http://www.architetturadipietra.it/wp/?p=6415, Telescopic view of the interior of the Pantheon (monlithic.org), Imperial Rome: the Pantheon is in the upper left area (imgkid.com), The Geometry and Dimensions (in meters) of the rotundaand the dome (Martines, 2009), The inscription on the portico of the Pantheon (Photo by author), The Christian altar in the Pantheon(photo by author), The exterior of the rotunda walls. While it is difficult to determine exactly who built the Pantheon, how, and when, there seems to be a majority consensus on the history as follows. The dome of the Pantheon stacks in ribs like the Tholos to form a drum, but then a proper concrete dome like that of the common circular temple completes the dome. This means that the Pantheon is designed to theoretically hold a sphere of equal diameter to that of the dome, and the sphere is encased in or defined by the dimensions of the cylinder or cube that could be used to represent the rotunda walls (MacDonald, 1976). When they got to the oculus, it was not as simple as just leaving an empty hole, the top of the dome is under compression, so they had to install a compression ring to prevent the oculus from collapsing inward. Standard Design Procedures; 4. By adding enough mass at the base, where the force is concentrated, the rings act like buttresses. General Sources of Roman Design and Construction: 3. We love meeting interesting people and making new friends. Other attempts at lightening the dome are seen in the coffering of the interior of the dome and the thinning of the dome from 7 meters at the base to 2 meters thick at the top. The lateral thrusts in adjacent arches point in opposite directions and essentially “cancel” each other out, and because the arches in the Pantheon are in the shape of the circular rotunda, all the forces distributed by the arches are fully supported and “cancelled” by the completed loop (Lancaster, 2006). It is the early experimentation with dome construction that has made Rome's Pantheon important in architectural history. The Pantheon is a church, formerly a Roman temple, widely regarded as the best preserved building from Ancient Rome.. It's not the Pantheon's facade facing the Italian piazza that makes this architecture iconic. Preliminary Considerations; 2. Farmmachinerysales. Simple wood trusses are now used underneath to support the roof of pediment, but there once was a bronze roof structure in the roof that has since been removed by Pope Urban VIII. It was a rectangular building dedicated to … The cavities and niches in the walls divide the rotunda into what is essentially a series of eight concrete piers, where the concrete is thickest, strongest, and supports the majority of the load. The entire Pantheon is saturated with geometrically inspired design and the dome is a good example of this. The original Pantheon was built by Agrippa, Augustus' most successful general, in 27 BC. There are several aspects of the Pantheon which are of significance in connection with Structural Engineering. This posed the potential to have a very problematic foundation because with such an unstable base, portions of the structure can settle or sink (Moore 1995). That alone is a testament to the quality of the Roman engineering techniques that went into creating the Pantheon. The Pantheon, a temple in Rome dedicated to all the gods, was rebuilt in its present form by the emperor Hadrian, (between 120-124 AD). The people I met, the places I saw, and the things I learned are all indescribable memories that will be one thing I will be happy to always owe to the hard work and goodwill of UW, the Civil Engineering Department, and the faculty that put the program together, especially including Steve, Heta, and everyone at the UW Rome Center. However, this did not stop all the settlement and mortar creep in the Pantheon walls. Email. Construction of the Pantheon . No author, no date. Subscribe to Naked Science – http://goo.gl/wpc2Q1 Some experts believe that this is one of the most important buildings the world has ever seen. Walk around a corner on a what seems like a typical Roman street and all of a sudden you see the massive columns inviting you in to the towering dome overhead. The Pantheon was built to honor all of the Roman gods. Here they offered sacrifices to protect life on earth and the family. The interior of the rotunda has a diameter of 43.4 meters, the same as the dome above, and is 31.7 meters tall (Moore, 1995). accessed 14 September 2015 from, Isler H., Balz M., (1980). The emperor Hadrian, under whose direction this building was constructed, apparently loved the building and loved to actually have visitors come to him here. Because of this rich, and often incompletely recorded history, the story of the Pantheon can be muddled with confusion and mystery. Photograph accessed 15 September 2015 from. 19 The internal area of the rotunda may also have been used in the early stages of construction. The Pantheon still retains a record however: it is the world’s largest concrete dome suspended without reinforcement. The Pantheon was built facing north, and prior to the construction of the city around the building, the Pantheon would have faced the mausoleum of the beloved emperor Augustus. Rebuilt by Emperor Domitian, the second Pantheon was struck by lightning and burned down again in the year 110 (Parker, 2009). The Pantheon is a marvel of construction ingenuity- the result of a century of experimentation with the use of advanced building elements such as the relieving arch, vaulting rib, lightweight caementa, and step rings. Dr. Paul A. Ranogajec. Updates? While not all sources agree on every single point, the goal of this report is to try to sift through the many sources of information to examine some of the history, construction techniques, and evolution involved with its history, in order to better appreciate the marvel that is the Pantheon. After the form was removed, the void below would be filled in with brick and concrete. Applications are usually available via the UW Study Abroad website in about December of even years. Scopus Citations. The Pantheon. Building the Pantheon was a dream that turned nightmarish, though in the end it sends all who enter into reveries. Photograph. The Pantheon. Compaction was a very important step, and Vitruvius showed how detailed it must be when he wrote that “when stamping is finished it must be…three quarters of its initial height” (Moore, 1995). Today, the Pantheon is open for the public to view and appreciate its wonder, free of charge. Middle empire. The walls at Pompeii are another example of the Romans sparing use of foundational support, because there is no discernible foundation for the 8 meter high and 5.5 meter thick wall. The so-called Temple of Apollo, also at Baiae, apparently measures about 35 meters (ca. There are openings at various levels, chambers, and passageways throughout the the rotunda wall. The last ingredient, rock aggregate is added or the concrete is laid directly onto a layer of aggregate for further mass and strength. The Pantheon was rebuilt by the Emperor Hadrian during the period 118 to 128 A.D. (a time given by Ward-Perkins). The Romans used a system of ratios to determine how to mix the best concrete using certain material This is an intriguing example of the ingenuity and adaptability of Roman Engineering and another one the unique challenges presented during the construction of the Pantheon that they had to overcome. Whether it was talking about its marshy foundation, the design of the dome, the cracking, or all the improvisation that occurred with features such as the columns being too short or the additional grottini structure in the rear, I couldn’t help but be drawn into the depth and range of engineering genius that went into designing and constructing the Pantheon. Roman Pantheon. According to Moore, a model produced results finding that the maximum tensile bending stress of the concrete in the dome is 18.5 psi and, using a sample of similar Roman concrete from Libya, he provided a tensile strength of 213 psi for the concrete. I got a chance to go in early one morning when it was raining, and it was unforgettable to see the rain fall through the oculus, seemingly in slow motion, hear the rain hit the uncrowded and silent floor, and then just take a deep breath to feel the great open space inside the Pantheon, the gateway to heaven. The structure's dome is 43 meters high, 43 meters in diameter and free-standing. (Jones, 2009). The building was dedicated to the Roman gods. (Moore, 1995). The Pantheon as we know it today was built in 120 AD by Empero… The company has earned recognition for undertaking projects of all sizes, fostering innovation and making a difference for clients and their communities. After discussing some background information in the next sections, I will present some information to expose some of these techniques and methods that allowed for the creation and survival of the Pantheon. The columns were mined out in one piece each from Egypt’s mountainous quarries of Mons Claudianus. When Hadrian set out to rebuild the Pantheon again seven years later, the resulting plan included the ambitious 43 meter diameter dome. Even today, almost 2000 years after its construction, the breathtaking pantheon is a remarkable building to see. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. The sheer size, complexity, and appealing aesthetics are undeniably jaw-dropping. The original design for the foundation of the Pantheon consisted of a concrete ring that was 7.2 meters wide, only about 1.2 meters wider than the walls it would support, and 4.7 meters deep into the ground from floor level. Despite these many attempts to avoid excessive stress in the dome by reducing the weight, the Pantheon’s dome is cracked in many places. The compression ring at the center of the dome is 5.9 meters in diameter 1.4 meters thick. “The Pantheon is the oldest building in the world that’s still in use today. The Pantheon – the most imitated building in the world but never duplicated. The original Pantheon was built in 27-25 BC under the Roman Empire, during the third consulship of Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa, and his name is inscribed on the portico of the building.. The building was adapted by architect Quatremère de Quincy to its new function as a pantheon. This is possibly due to a combination of factors, including the arches contained in the 6m-thick walls supporting the ceiling, the various densities of concrete used in the construction of the dome and its thickness which lessens gradually as it nears the centre. The rosetta stone and Half Dome in Yosemite are also made of granodiorate (National Parks). The interior of the dome is lined with 5 bands of coffers, rectangular spaces left out of the dome to save weight and material (Moore, 1995). Don't be shy, get in touch. Left: Stairway to Heaven being played outside the Pantheon one day while passing by (video from author)Right: That is the Pantheon. accessed 14 September 2014 from, No author, no date. The processes involved in creating and using concrete require a lot of chemistry; when creating a usable form of lime, when mixing the different amounts of the ingredients, and then letting the concrete dry for the correct time, at the right thickness for the structure to form and harden correctly. 2 But the Ward-Perkins's period is disputed by, Lugli who said the building was started sometime after 123 A.D. and was finished by Emperor Pius about 140 A.D. 3 However, most of the bricks were made and placed in the Pantheon in 123 A.D., a date that the maker stamped on his bricks. But the Pantheon was not funeral in nature. The dome, a perfect hemisphere from the interior, has a diameter of 43.3 meters and rests on top of the rotunda walls which have an equal height. 118-125 CE. It is fairly humbling considering that the Romans knew nothing of molecular chemistry, their concrete was made through trial and error, yet they were able to come up with concrete comparable to modern concrete, that is in terms of the types of materials used to make it, but not necessarily comparable to modern concrete’s far superior strength. The Pantheon. Agrippa built the original Pantheon in honor of his and Augustus’ military victory at the Battle of Actium in 31 B.C.E.—one of the defining moments in the establishment of the Roman Empire (Augustus would go on to become the first Emperor of Rome). This position of the Pantheon was meant to honor Augustus and also associate Hadrian with the great emperor. 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